Max Keppler Inhaltsverzeichnis
Maximilian „Max“ Kepler-Rozycki ist ein deutscher Baseballspieler, der seit dem Jahr bei den Minnesota Twins aus der American League unter Vertrag steht. Der Outfielder, der mitunter auch als First Baseman eingesetzt wird, gilt als eines der. Maximilian „Max“ Kepler-Rozycki (* Februar in Berlin) ist ein deutscher Baseballspieler, der seit dem Jahr bei den Minnesota Twins aus der. Personen mit dem Namen Max Keppler. Finde deine Freunde auf Facebook. Melde dich an oder registriere dich bei Facebook, um dich mit Freunden, Verwandten. Tritt Facebook bei, um dich mit Max Keppler und anderen Nutzern, die du Max Kepplers Profilbild, Bild könnte enthalten: 2 Personen, Nahaufnahme und. Max Keppler mit ✉ Adresse ☎ Tel. und mehr bei ☎ Das Telefonbuch ✓ Ihre Nr. 1 für Adressen und Telefonnummern.
Max Keppler mit ✉ Adresse ☎ Tel. und mehr bei ☎ Das Telefonbuch ✓ Ihre Nr. 1 für Adressen und Telefonnummern. Tritt Facebook bei, um dich mit Max Keppler und anderen Nutzern, die du Max Kepplers Profilbild, Bild könnte enthalten: 2 Personen, Nahaufnahme und. ll▷ Max Keppler gesucht? Richtige Adressen und Telefonnummern finden! 2 Einträge zu Max Keppler mit aktuellen Kontaktdaten, Öffnungszeiten und.
Max Keppler - Entdecken Sie den DeutschlandfunkAugust erstmals drei Home Runs und insgesamt vier Hits in einem Spiel. September , abgerufen am Nach Kritik entschuldigte er sich für das Foto. November
Max Keppler VideoMax Kepler 2019 Highlights Kepler was convinced "that the geometrical things have provided the Creator with the model Beste Spielothek in HГ¶rvelsingen finden decorating the whole world". Like many Gta 5 Pc Geld Verdienen and famous people, Max keeps his personal and love life private. Physicist Wolfgang Pauli even used Kepler's priority dispute with Robert Fludd to explore the implications Tipoico analytical psychology on scientific investigation. Those Pong Online Spielen [of nature] are within the grasp of the human mind; God wanted us to recognize them by creating us after his own image so that we could share in his own thoughts. Kepler began systematically observing the nova. Kansas City Kennedy School in Berlin. More Kepler Pages. September von den Twins erstmals in deren Major-League-Mannschaft berufen. August The Chattanoogan. Dolce Vita De Jahren geboren P. Augustabgerufen am 9. Juni beim Erfolg über die Yankees, bei dem er zudem zum ersten Mal drei Hits in Beste Spielothek in NiederГ¶lfen finden Spiel erreichte. Inning gegen die Boston Red Sox. Auf den Schultern trug man ihn aus der Arena. Zumal, wenn man erfolgreich sein möchte. Absicherung Alternativen zur Berufsunfähigkeitsversicherung. Sportschau Google Play Guthaben Online Aufladen mal erklärt Nutzt Auswendiglernen nur den grauen Zellen? ll▷ Max Keppler gesucht? Richtige Adressen und Telefonnummern finden! 2 Einträge zu Max Keppler mit aktuellen Kontaktdaten, Öffnungszeiten und. max kepler instagram.
In , Kepler published an expanded second edition of Mysterium , half as long again as the first, detailing in footnotes the corrections and improvements he had achieved in the 25 years since its first publication.
In terms of the impact of Mysterium , it can be seen as an important first step in modernizing the theory proposed by Nicolaus Copernicus in his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium.
Whilst Copernicus sought to advance a heliocentric system in this book, he resorted to Ptolemaic devices viz. In December , Kepler was introduced to Barbara Müller, a year-old widow twice over with a young daughter, Regina Lorenz, and he began courting her.
Müller, an heiress to the estates of her late husbands, was also the daughter of a successful mill owner. Her father Jobst initially opposed a marriage.
Even though Kepler had inherited his grandfather's nobility, Kepler's poverty made him an unacceptable match. Jobst relented after Kepler completed work on Mysterium , but the engagement nearly fell apart while Kepler was away tending to the details of publication.
However, Protestant officials—who had helped set up the match—pressured the Müllers to honor their agreement. Barbara and Johannes were married on 27 April In the first years of their marriage, the Keplers had two children Heinrich and Susanna , both of whom died in infancy.
In , they had a daughter Susanna ; in , a son Friedrich ; and in , another son Ludwig. Following the publication of Mysterium and with the blessing of the Graz school inspectors, Kepler began an ambitious program to extend and elaborate his work.
He planned four additional books: one on the stationary aspects of the universe the Sun and the fixed stars ; one on the planets and their motions; one on the physical nature of planets and the formation of geographical features focused especially on Earth ; and one on the effects of the heavens on the Earth, to include atmospheric optics, meteorology, and astrology.
He also sought the opinions of many of the astronomers to whom he had sent Mysterium , among them Reimarus Ursus Nicolaus Reimers Bär —the imperial mathematician to Rudolph II and a bitter rival of Tycho Brahe.
Ursus did not reply directly, but republished Kepler's flattering letter to pursue his priority dispute over what is now called the Tychonic system with Tycho.
Despite this black mark, Tycho also began corresponding with Kepler, starting with a harsh but legitimate critique of Kepler's system; among a host of objections, Tycho took issue with the use of inaccurate numerical data taken from Copernicus.
Through their letters, Tycho and Kepler discussed a broad range of astronomical problems, dwelling on lunar phenomena and Copernican theory particularly its theological viability.
But without the significantly more accurate data of Tycho's observatory, Kepler had no way to address many of these issues. Instead, he turned his attention to chronology and "harmony," the numerological relationships among music, mathematics and the physical world, and their astrological consequences.
By assuming the Earth to possess a soul a property he would later invoke to explain how the sun causes the motion of planets , he established a speculative system connecting astrological aspects and astronomical distances to weather and other earthly phenomena.
By , however, he again felt his work limited by the inaccuracy of available data—just as growing religious tension was also threatening his continued employment in Graz.
In December of that year, Tycho invited Kepler to visit him in Prague ; on 1 January before he even received the invitation , Kepler set off in the hopes that Tycho's patronage could solve his philosophical problems as well as his social and financial ones.
Over the next two months, he stayed as a guest, analyzing some of Tycho's observations of Mars; Tycho guarded his data closely, but was impressed by Kepler's theoretical ideas and soon allowed him more access.
Kepler planned to test his theory  from Mysterium Cosmographicum based on the Mars data, but he estimated that the work would take up to two years since he was not allowed to simply copy the data for his own use.
With the help of Johannes Jessenius , Kepler attempted to negotiate a more formal employment arrangement with Tycho, but negotiations broke down in an angry argument and Kepler left for Prague on 6 April.
Kepler and Tycho soon reconciled and eventually reached an agreement on salary and living arrangements, and in June, Kepler returned home to Graz to collect his family.
Political and religious difficulties in Graz dashed his hopes of returning immediately to Brahe; in hopes of continuing his astronomical studies, Kepler sought an appointment as a mathematician to Archduke Ferdinand.
To that end, Kepler composed an essay—dedicated to Ferdinand—in which he proposed a force-based theory of lunar motion: "In Terra inest virtus, quae Lunam ciet" "There is a force in the earth which causes the moon to move".
These observations formed the basis of his explorations of the laws of optics that would culminate in Astronomiae Pars Optica.
On 2 August , after refusing to convert to Catholicism, Kepler and his family were banished from Graz.
Several months later, Kepler returned, now with the rest of his household, to Prague. Through most of , he was supported directly by Tycho, who assigned him to analyzing planetary observations and writing a tract against Tycho's by then deceased rival, Ursus.
In September, Tycho secured him a commission as a collaborator on the new project he had proposed to the emperor: the Rudolphine Tables that should replace the Prutenic Tables of Erasmus Reinhold.
Two days after Tycho's unexpected death on 24 October , Kepler was appointed his successor as the imperial mathematician with the responsibility to complete his unfinished work.
The next 11 years as imperial mathematician would be the most productive of his life. Kepler's primary obligation as imperial mathematician was to provide astrological advice to the emperor.
Though Kepler took a dim view of the attempts of contemporary astrologers to precisely predict the future or divine specific events, he had been casting well-received detailed horoscopes for friends, family, and patrons since his time as a student in Tübingen.
In addition to horoscopes for allies and foreign leaders, the emperor sought Kepler's advice in times of political trouble.
Rudolph was actively interested in the work of many of his court scholars including numerous alchemists and kept up with Kepler's work in physical astronomy as well.
Officially, the only acceptable religious doctrines in Prague were Catholic and Utraquist , but Kepler's position in the imperial court allowed him to practice his Lutheran faith unhindered.
The emperor nominally provided an ample income for his family, but the difficulties of the over-extended imperial treasury meant that actually getting hold of enough money to meet financial obligations was a continual struggle.
Partly because of financial troubles, his life at home with Barbara was unpleasant, marred with bickering and bouts of sickness.
Court life, however, brought Kepler into contact with other prominent scholars Johannes Matthäus Wackher von Wackhenfels , Jost Bürgi , David Fabricius , Martin Bachazek, and Johannes Brengger, among others and astronomical work proceeded rapidly.
As Kepler slowly continued analyzing Tycho's Mars observations—now available to him in their entirety—and began the slow process of tabulating the Rudolphine Tables , Kepler also picked up the investigation of the laws of optics from his lunar essay of Both lunar and solar eclipses presented unexplained phenomena, such as unexpected shadow sizes, the red color of a total lunar eclipse, and the reportedly unusual light surrounding a total solar eclipse.
Related issues of atmospheric refraction applied to all astronomical observations. Through most of , Kepler paused his other work to focus on optical theory; the resulting manuscript, presented to the emperor on 1 January , was published as Astronomiae Pars Optica The Optical Part of Astronomy.
In it, Kepler described the inverse-square law governing the intensity of light, reflection by flat and curved mirrors, and principles of pinhole cameras , as well as the astronomical implications of optics such as parallax and the apparent sizes of heavenly bodies.
He also extended his study of optics to the human eye, and is generally considered by neuroscientists to be the first to recognize that images are projected inverted and reversed by the eye's lens onto the retina.
The solution to this dilemma was not of particular importance to Kepler as he did not see it as pertaining to optics, although he did suggest that the image was later corrected "in the hollows of the brain" due to the "activity of the Soul.
He argued that if a focus of a conic section were allowed to move along the line joining the foci, the geometric form would morph or degenerate, one into another.
In this way, an ellipse becomes a parabola when a focus moves toward infinity, and when two foci of an ellipse merge into one another, a circle is formed.
As the foci of a hyperbola merge into one another, the hyperbola becomes a pair of straight lines. He also assumed that if a straight line is extended to infinity it will meet itself at a single point at infinity , thus having the properties of a large circle.
In October , a bright new evening star SN appeared, but Kepler did not believe the rumors until he saw it himself.
Kepler began systematically observing the nova. Astrologically, the end of marked the beginning of a fiery trigon , the start of the about year cycle of great conjunctions ; astrologers associated the two previous such periods with the rise of Charlemagne c.
It was in this context, as the imperial mathematician and astrologer to the emperor, that Kepler described the new star two years later in his De Stella Nova.
In it, Kepler addressed the star's astronomical properties while taking a skeptical approach to the many astrological interpretations then circulating.
He noted its fading luminosity, speculated about its origin, and used the lack of observed parallax to argue that it was in the sphere of fixed stars, further undermining the doctrine of the immutability of the heavens the idea accepted since Aristotle that the celestial spheres were perfect and unchanging.
The birth of a new star implied the variability of the heavens. In an appendix, Kepler also discussed the recent chronology work of the Polish historian Laurentius Suslyga ; he calculated that, if Suslyga was correct that accepted timelines were four years behind, then the Star of Bethlehem —analogous to the present new star—would have coincided with the first great conjunction of the earlier year cycle.
The extended line of research that culminated in Astronomia nova A New Astronomy —including the first two laws of planetary motion —began with the analysis, under Tycho's direction, of Mars' orbit.
Kepler calculated and recalculated various approximations of Mars' orbit using an equant the mathematical tool that Copernicus had eliminated with his system , eventually creating a model that generally agreed with Tycho's observations to within two arcminutes the average measurement error.
But he was not satisfied with the complex and still slightly inaccurate result; at certain points the model differed from the data by up to eight arcminutes.
The wide array of traditional mathematical astronomy methods having failed him, Kepler set about trying to fit an ovoid orbit to the data.
In Kepler's religious view of the cosmos, the Sun a symbol of God the Father was the source of motive force in the Solar System.
As a physical basis, Kepler drew by analogy on William Gilbert 's theory of the magnetic soul of the Earth from De Magnete and on his own work on optics.
Kepler supposed that the motive power or motive species  radiated by the Sun weakens with distance, causing faster or slower motion as planets move closer or farther from it.
Based on measurements of the aphelion and perihelion of the Earth and Mars, he created a formula in which a planet's rate of motion is inversely proportional to its distance from the Sun.
Verifying this relationship throughout the orbital cycle required very extensive calculation; to simplify this task, by late Kepler reformulated the proportion in terms of geometry: planets sweep out equal areas in equal times —his second law of planetary motion.
He then set about calculating the entire orbit of Mars, using the geometrical rate law and assuming an egg-shaped ovoid orbit.
After approximately 40 failed attempts, in late he at last hit upon the idea of an ellipse,  which he had previously assumed to be too simple a solution for earlier astronomers to have overlooked.
Because he employed no calculating assistants, he did not extend the mathematical analysis beyond Mars.
By the end of the year, he completed the manuscript for Astronomia nova , though it would not be published until due to legal disputes over the use of Tycho's observations, the property of his heirs.
In the years following the completion of Astronomia Nova , most of Kepler's research was focused on preparations for the Rudolphine Tables and a comprehensive set of ephemerides specific predictions of planet and star positions based on the table though neither would be completed for many years.
He also attempted unsuccessfully to begin a collaboration with Italian astronomer Giovanni Antonio Magini.
Some of his other work dealt with chronology, especially the dating of events in the life of Jesus , and with astrology, especially criticism of dramatic predictions of catastrophe such as those of Helisaeus Roeslin.
Kepler and Roeslin engaged in a series of published attacks and counter-attacks, while physician Philip Feselius published a work dismissing astrology altogether and Roeslin's work in particular.
In response to what Kepler saw as the excesses of astrology on the one hand and overzealous rejection of it on the other, Kepler prepared Tertius Interveniens [Third-party Interventions].
Nominally this work—presented to the common patron of Roeslin and Feselius—was a neutral mediation between the feuding scholars, but it also set out Kepler's general views on the value of astrology, including some hypothesized mechanisms of interaction between planets and individual souls.
While Kepler considered most traditional rules and methods of astrology to be the "evil-smelling dung" in which "an industrious hen" scrapes, there was an "occasional grain-seed, indeed, even a pearl or a gold nugget" to be found by the conscientious scientific astrologer.
In the first months of , Galileo Galilei —using his powerful new telescope —discovered four satellites orbiting Jupiter.
Upon publishing his account as Sidereus Nuncius [Starry Messenger], Galileo sought the opinion of Kepler, in part to bolster the credibility of his observations.
Kepler responded enthusiastically with a short published reply, Dissertatio cum Nuncio Sidereo [Conversation with the Starry Messenger].
He endorsed Galileo's observations and offered a range of speculations about the meaning and implications of Galileo's discoveries and telescopic methods, for astronomy and optics as well as cosmology and astrology.
Later that year, Kepler published his own telescopic observations of the moons in Narratio de Jovis Satellitibus , providing further support of Galileo.
To Kepler's disappointment, however, Galileo never published his reactions if any to Astronomia Nova.
After hearing of Galileo's telescopic discoveries, Kepler also started a theoretical and experimental investigation of telescopic optics using a telescope borrowed from Duke Ernest of Cologne.
In it, Kepler set out the theoretical basis of double-convex converging lenses and double-concave diverging lenses —and how they are combined to produce a Galilean telescope —as well as the concepts of real vs.
He also described an improved telescope—now known as the astronomical or Keplerian telescope —in which two convex lenses can produce higher magnification than Galileo's combination of convex and concave lenses.
Around , Kepler circulated a manuscript of what would eventually be published posthumously as Somnium [The Dream]. Part of the purpose of Somnium was to describe what practicing astronomy would be like from the perspective of another planet, to show the feasibility of a non-geocentric system.
The manuscript, which disappeared after changing hands several times, described a fantastic trip to the Moon; it was part allegory, part autobiography, and part treatise on interplanetary travel and is sometimes described as the first work of science fiction.
Years later, a distorted version of the story may have instigated the witchcraft trial against his mother, as the mother of the narrator consults a demon to learn the means of space travel.
Following her eventual acquittal, Kepler composed footnotes to the story—several times longer than the actual text—which explained the allegorical aspects as well as the considerable scientific content particularly regarding lunar geography hidden within the text.
In this treatise, he published the first description of the hexagonal symmetry of snowflakes and, extending the discussion into a hypothetical atomistic physical basis for the symmetry, posed what later became known as the Kepler conjecture , a statement about the most efficient arrangement for packing spheres.
In , the growing political-religious tension in Prague came to a head. Emperor Rudolph—whose health was failing—was forced to abdicate as King of Bohemia by his brother Matthias.
Both sides sought Kepler's astrological advice, an opportunity he used to deliver conciliatory political advice with little reference to the stars, except in general statements to discourage drastic action.
However, it was clear that Kepler's future prospects in the court of Matthias were dim. Also in that year, Barbara Kepler contracted Hungarian spotted fever , then began having seizures.
As Barbara was recovering, Kepler's three children all fell sick with smallpox; Friedrich, 6, died. Following his son's death, Kepler sent letters to potential patrons in Württemberg and Padua.
At the University of Tübingen in Württemberg, concerns over Kepler's perceived Calvinist heresies in violation of the Augsburg Confession and the Formula of Concord prevented his return.
The University of Padua —on the recommendation of the departing Galileo—sought Kepler to fill the mathematics professorship, but Kepler, preferring to keep his family in German territory, instead travelled to Austria to arrange a position as teacher and district mathematician in Linz.
However, Barbara relapsed into illness and died shortly after Kepler's return. Kepler postponed the move to Linz and remained in Prague until Rudolph's death in early , though between political upheaval, religious tension, and family tragedy along with the legal dispute over his wife's estate , Kepler could do no research.
Instead, he pieced together a chronology manuscript, Eclogae Chronicae , from correspondence and earlier work. Upon succession as Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias re-affirmed Kepler's position and salary as imperial mathematician but allowed him to move to Linz.
In Linz, Kepler's primary responsibilities beyond completing the Rudolphine Tables were teaching at the district school and providing astrological and astronomical services.
In his first years there, he enjoyed financial security and religious freedom relative to his life in Prague—though he was excluded from Eucharist by his Lutheran church over his theological scruples.
It was also during his time in Linz that Kepler had to deal with the accusation and ultimate verdict of witchcraft against his mother Katharina in the Protestant town of Leonberg.
That blow, happening only a few years after Kepler's excommunication , is not seen as a coincidence but as a symptom of the full-fledged assault waged by the Lutherans against Kepler.
His first publication in Linz was De vero Anno , an expanded treatise on the year of Christ's birth; he also participated in deliberations on whether to introduce Pope Gregory 's reformed calendar to Protestant German lands; that year he also wrote the influential mathematical treatise Nova stereometria doliorum vinariorum , on measuring the volume of containers such as wine barrels, published in On 30 October , Kepler married the year-old Susanna Reuttinger.
Following the death of his first wife Barbara, Kepler had considered 11 different matches over two years a decision process formalized later as the marriage problem.
Three more survived into adulthood: Cordula born ; Fridmar born ; and Hildebert born According to Kepler's biographers, this was a much happier marriage than his first.
Since completing the Astronomia nova , Kepler had intended to compose an astronomy textbook. Despite the title, which referred simply to heliocentrism, Kepler's textbook culminated in his own ellipse-based system.
The Epitome became Kepler's most influential work. It contained all three laws of planetary motion and attempted to explain heavenly motions through physical causes.
As a spin-off from the Rudolphine Tables and the related Ephemerides , Kepler published astrological calendars, which were very popular and helped offset the costs of producing his other work—especially when support from the Imperial treasury was withheld.
In his calendars—six between and —Kepler forecast planetary positions and weather as well as political events; the latter were often cannily accurate, thanks to his keen grasp of contemporary political and theological tensions.
By , however, the escalation of those tensions and the ambiguity of the prophecies meant political trouble for Kepler himself; his final calendar was publicly burned in Graz.
In , Ursula Reingold, a woman in a financial dispute with Kepler's brother Christoph, claimed Kepler's mother Katharina had made her sick with an evil brew.
The dispute escalated, and in Katharina was accused of witchcraft ; witchcraft trials were relatively common in central Europe at this time. Beginning in August , she was imprisoned for fourteen months.
She was released in October , thanks in part to the extensive legal defense drawn up by Kepler. The accusers had no stronger evidence than rumors.
Katharina was subjected to territio verbalis , a graphic description of the torture awaiting her as a witch, in a final attempt to make her confess.
Throughout the trial, Kepler postponed his other work to focus on his "harmonic theory". The result, published in , was Harmonices Mundi "Harmony of the World".
Kepler was convinced "that the geometrical things have provided the Creator with the model for decorating the whole world".
Kepler began by exploring regular polygons and regular solids , including the figures that would come to be known as Kepler's solids.
From there, he extended his harmonic analysis to music, meteorology, and astrology; harmony resulted from the tones made by the souls of heavenly bodies—and in the case of astrology, the interaction between those tones and human souls.
In the final portion of the work Book V , Kepler dealt with planetary motions, especially relationships between orbital velocity and orbital distance from the Sun.
Similar relationships had been used by other astronomers, but Kepler—with Tycho's data and his own astronomical theories—treated them much more precisely and attached new physical significance to them.
Among many other harmonies, Kepler articulated what came to be known as the third law of planetary motion. He then tried many combinations until he discovered that approximately " The square of the periodic times are to each other as the cubes of the mean distances.
When conjoined with Christiaan Huygens ' newly discovered law of centrifugal force, it enabled Isaac Newton , Edmund Halley , and perhaps Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke to demonstrate independently that the presumed gravitational attraction between the Sun and its planets decreased with the square of the distance between them.
In , Kepler at last completed the Rudolphine Tables , which at the time was considered his major work. However, due to the publishing requirements of the emperor and negotiations with Tycho Brahe's heir, it would not be printed until In the meantime, religious tension — the root of the ongoing Thirty Years' War — once again put Kepler and his family in jeopardy.
In , agents of the Catholic Counter-Reformation placed most of Kepler's library under seal, and in the city of Linz was besieged.
Kepler moved to Ulm , where he arranged for the printing of the Tables at his own expense. In , following the military successes of the Emperor Ferdinand's armies under General Wallenstein , Kepler became an official advisor to Wallenstein.
Though not the general's court astrologer per se, Kepler provided astronomical calculations for Wallenstein's astrologers and occasionally wrote horoscopes himself.
In his final years, Kepler spent much of his time traveling, from the imperial court in Prague to Linz and Ulm to a temporary home in Sagan , and finally to Regensburg.
Soon after arriving in Regensburg, Kepler fell ill. He died on 15 November , and was buried there; his burial site was lost after the Swedish army destroyed the churchyard.
Kepler's belief that God created the cosmos in an orderly fashion caused him to attempt to determine and comprehend the laws that govern the natural world, most profoundly in astronomy.
Those laws [of nature] are within the grasp of the human mind; God wanted us to recognize them by creating us after his own image so that we could share in his own thoughts.
Kepler's laws of planetary motion were not immediately accepted. Many astronomers, including Kepler's teacher, Michael Maestlin, objected to Kepler's introduction of physics into his astronomy.
Some adopted compromise positions. Several astronomers tested Kepler's theory, and its various modifications, against astronomical observations.
Two transits of Venus and Mercury across the face of the sun provided sensitive tests of the theory, under circumstances when these planets could not normally be observed.
In the case of the transit of Mercury in , Kepler had been extremely uncertain of the parameters for Mercury, and advised observers to look for the transit the day before and after the predicted date.
Pierre Gassendi observed the transit on the date predicted, a confirmation of Kepler's prediction.
However, his attempt to observe the transit of Venus just one month later was unsuccessful due to inaccuracies in the Rudolphine Tables. Gassendi did not realize that it was not visible from most of Europe, including Paris.
He remained a firm advocate of the Keplerian model. Epitome of Copernican Astronomy was read by astronomers throughout Europe, and following Kepler's death, it was the main vehicle for spreading Kepler's ideas.
In the period — , this book was the most widely used astronomy textbook, winning many converts to ellipse-based astronomy. In the late 17th century, a number of physical astronomy theories drawing from Kepler's work—notably those of Giovanni Alfonso Borelli and Robert Hooke—began to incorporate attractive forces though not the quasi-spiritual motive species postulated by Kepler and the Cartesian concept of inertia.
Beyond his role in the historical development of astronomy and natural philosophy, Kepler has loomed large in the philosophy and historiography of science.
These and other histories written from an Enlightenment perspective treated Kepler's metaphysical and religious arguments with skepticism and disapproval, but later Romantic -era natural philosophers viewed these elements as central to his success.
William Whewell , in his influential History of the Inductive Sciences of , found Kepler to be the archetype of the inductive scientific genius; in his Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences of , Whewell held Kepler up as the embodiment of the most advanced forms of scientific method.
Similarly, Ernst Friedrich Apelt —the first to extensively study Kepler's manuscripts, after their purchase by Catherine the Great —identified Kepler as a key to the " Revolution of the sciences ".
Apelt, who saw Kepler's mathematics, aesthetic sensibility, physical ideas, and theology as part of a unified system of thought, produced the first extended analysis of Kepler's life and work.
Since the s, the volume of historical Kepler scholarship has expanded greatly, including studies of his astrology and meteorology, his geometrical methods, the role of his religious views in his work, his literary and rhetorical methods, his interaction with the broader cultural and philosophical currents of his time, and even his role as an historian of science.
Philosophers of science—such as Charles Sanders Peirce , Norwood Russell Hanson , Stephen Toulmin , and Karl Popper —have repeatedly turned to Kepler: examples of incommensurability , analogical reasoning , falsification, and many other philosophical concepts have been found in Kepler's work.
Physicist Wolfgang Pauli even used Kepler's priority dispute with Robert Fludd to explore the implications of analytical psychology on scientific investigation.
Modern translations of a number of Kepler's books appeared in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, the systematic publication of his collected works began in and is nearing completion in the early 21st century.
An edition in eight volumes, Kepleri Opera omnia, was prepared by Christian Frisch — , during to , on the occasion of Kepler's th birthday.
Bob Hendley Recorded second walk-off of season and sixth of career July 21 vs. Oakland, singling in the ninth inning of a Twins victory Hit 30th home run August 1 at Miami in Twins game , the sixth fastest in club history to reach 30 homers, previous five all being Harmon Killebrew.
Hit 35th home run August 24 vs. Detroit in Twins game , the fourth fastest in club history to reach 35 homers, previous three all being Killebrew Played in only 11 of the Twins 27 games in September, and only one after September 15 as a pinch-runner , as he was slowed by a rhomboid muscle strain near his left shoulder.
Set career highs in runs 98 , hits , doubles 32, tying , home runs 36 , RBI 90 , batting average. Played 84 games 72 starts in rightfield and 60 games 53 starts in centerfield Hit 32 home runs from the leadoff spot, second most in club history, trailing Brian Dozier's 34 in Finish tied for seventh in the AL in homers 36 and was one of 13 AL players and one of 23 in all of baseball with plus doubles, plus homers and plus RBI.
Played all three games in ALDS vs. New York-AL, going 0-for with three walks and three strikeouts. Recorded fourth career multi-homer game April 11 vs.
Had third career walk-off, second as a home run, April 11 vs. Houston, a two-out shot in the bottom of the ninth giving the Twins the win Hit 20th home run September 30 vs.
Chicago-AL, setting a single-season career-high Ranked first on club in walks 71 and second in runs scored 80 - both career-highs Ranked tied for 11th in the AL in walks Led club in games played in the field with starts , making just one error and seven outfield assists in total chances Ranked third in the AL in games played in the outfield, playing games in rightfield 98 starts and 55 games in centerfield 44 starts Signed five-year contract extension February 14 along with Jorge Polanco with a one-year club option.
Kansas City Tied career high with four hits July 3 vs. Los Angeles-AL Tied career-high nine-game hitting streak May June Recorded third career multi-homer game August 8 vs.
Hit second career grand slam August 26 at Toronto Hit second career walk-off August 31 vs. Kansas City when Paul Molitor did it Set career-highs in games , runs 67 , hits , doubles 32 , home runs 19 , RBI 69 and walks Ranked third on club in doubles Played games starts in rightfield, ranking fifth in the AL.
Played just seven games for the Twins before being optioned back to Rochester April 25 Santana reinstated Hit first career home run June 12 vs.
Boston off Matt Barnes, a three-run walk-off KC , Dan Masteller July 28, vs. Recorded first career three-hit game, including a double and home run, June 19 vs.
New York-AL Hit nine doubles in June, tied for second most in the AL Recorded first career two-homer game July 2 vs.
Texas, and set Twins rookie record with seven RBI in one game Cron for third most in baseball in , trailing Kris Bryant 16 and Yasmani Grandal 14 ; also most total bases for a rookie since Andrew McCutchen had 13 in TOR for most total bases for rookie in Twins history Hit five home runs and recorded 21 RBI in 28 August games; the RBI were tied for first among rookies during the month, while homers were tied for second Finished with 17 home runs, ninth most among rookies in club history; finished with 63 RBI, 10th most among rookies in club history Ranked third on club in home runs 17 and RBI 63 , fourth in runs 52 , and fifth in walks Led all AL rookies in walks, second in RBI, third in home runs, fourth in games , and fifth in hits Participated in second career Twins spring training and was optioned to Double-A Chattanooga roster March Optioned again to Single-A Ft.